The Ivorian forward scored a last-minute goal to give the visitors maximum points at the Stadio San Paolo on Saturday
The former Arsenal player finished off a counter-attack in the injury time to give Roberto D’Aversa’s side their third straight win in the Italian top-flight.
Napoli were dealt a blow early in the encounter after Koulibaly picked up an injury and was substituted just five minutes into the game.
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Dejan Kulusevski’s opened the scoring for Parma in the fourth minute but Arkadiusz Milik drew Gennaro Gattuso’s men level in the 64th minute.
Gervinho’s stoppage-time effort compounded Napoli woes as their winless run in the Serie A was extended to eight games.
Seventh-placed Parma will be hoping to continue their fine form when they host Brescia for their next league game on December 22 while Napoli visit Sassuolo for their next fixture.